Metamaterials, or sometimes also known as Artificial Electromagnetic Materials, have attracted great interest from the scientific community since the early 2000’s. They represent new materials which have anomalous interaction with electromagnetic fields. The engineering of these unique materials results in physical properties not otherwise obtainable with natural materials.
These new properties enabled by electromagnetic metamaterials initiated a process of reviewing the whole classical electrodynamics from its original perspectives, with significant implications for modern science and technology.
The use of metamaterials enables the advanced improvements in the performance of conventional electromagnetic devices, and to design conceptually new devices such as perfect and hyper-lenses, cloaking devices, etc. Ultimately the metamaterial concept is considered today as an intermediate layer between the classical concepts of material and devices in the so-called technological stack.
Metamaterials has allowed designers to overcome the conventional concept of material intended as a mere support and get closer to being a functioning layer integrated into the device. Starting from these concepts and theoretical background of artificial electromagnetic materials and metamaterials, engineers have moved to interesting applications in microwave and optical devices and systems, with particular focus given to miniaturized components, electrically small and multi-functional antennas, radar absorbing materials, electromagnetic invisibility devices, and active metamaterials for overcoming the intrinsic limitations i.e. operation bandwidth and losses.
The creation of this negative index material has resulted in a reduction of transducer losses in producing electromagnetic fields, this innovation has led to the technology in the new Shark Shield Ocean Guardian.
Negative-index metamaterial array configuration, which was constructed of copper split-ring resonators and wires mounted on interlocking sheets of fiberglass circuit board. The total array consists of 3 by 20×20 unit cells with overall dimensions of 10 mm × 100 mm × 100 mm (0.39 in × 3.94 in × 3.94 in).
In 1995 it was discovered that sharks have a heightened sensitivity to low frequency electrical fields. Two decades of intensive global research has developed this knowledge into a reliable and essential piece of equipment that protects visitors to the ocean and the sharks that live there; the new Ocean Guardian range of products expands on Shark Shield’s history and knowledge of developing the worlds only scientifically proven shark deterrent technology.
The new Shark Shield Ocean Guardian technology uses an innovative metamaterial transducer to produce a powerful electromagnetic field so that when a shark comes within approximately fifty meters of the LR10000 (one hundred meter diameter), the strong electromagnetic pulses emitted cause the shark to experience muscle spasms.
The LR1000 model can generate electromagnetic field of up to 20 uV/cm (micro volt) at 30 meters distance (radius) in saline water condition using ultra high frequency. As a reference point, 20 uV/cm is approximately 4,000 times higher than the sharks lowest know electrical sensitivity of 5 nV/cm (nano volt). The ultra high frequency enables the distance into the water as the carrier, and very low modulation 1.75 HZ allow excitability of ampulla of Lorenzini, which are sensitive to low frequency, similar to a human heart beat. The approximate range to repel sharks is 100 meters distance (diameter).
The electromagnetic field does NOT harm the shark in any way, but merely causes it to experience a high level of discomfort. From testing, the closer the shark is to the Shark Shield field, the more spasms occur in the sharks’ snouts, which results in it turning away from the electromagnetic field, thereby protecting the user. Clinical studies have also shown the electromagnetic field is safe for humans.